Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


A study of 958 managers is reported which investigates, by questionnaire, differences in perceived deficiencies in need fulfillment at all levels of management in both large and small organizations. It further gives attention to the relative importance of 13 personality traits for success in their management position, and examines whether motivational commonality exists among various job conditions at all levels of management. Results indicate: (a) all levels of management tend to be similar in the relative ranks they give to the importance of needs regardless of size of organization, (b) self-actualization and autonomy needs seem to be most important by all management levels and least fulfilled, (c) high degree of motivational commonality regarding conditions of work to be important, and (d) high correlation between the personality traits ranking within all levels of management.



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