Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Rick Grieve (Director), Dr. Sarah Ostrowski, Dr. Andrew Mienaltowski

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


The present study examined how a fan's desire to participate in superstitious behaviors depends on team identification, team location, and game outcome. The study is a 2 (team identification: high vs. low) x 2 (game outcome: close game vs. blowout) x 2 (location of team: local vs. distant) between subjects factorial design. Participants for the current study included 234 students, recruited from undergraduate psychology classes at Western Kentucky University. Participants completed the Sport Spectator Identification Scale, read a randomly assigned vignette differing in team location and game outcome, and filled out the Superstition Questionnaire to measure their desire to complete superstitious behaviors based on the vignette. They also filled out the Desirability of Control Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales to account for the possible covariates of desirability of control and anxiety level. An analysis of the covariates showed that there were no significant correlations between desirability of control or anxiety level and the desire to complete superstitious behaviors. Results indicated that highly identified fans reported wanting to perform more superstitious behaviors than low identified fans. However, no main effect was found for game outcome or team location, and there were no interactions. This finding reiterated the importance of team identification and its effects on the fan. The study also brought new variables to the table, game type and team type, that could be used in future research.


Personality and Social Contexts | Social Psychology