Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Carl Myers (Director), Dr. Cassie Zippay, Dr. Reagan Brown

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


The use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in schools is increasing, as it is a useful indicator of students’ basic academic skills. CBM measures are often used for identifying students at-risk, monitoring their progress during interventions, and even making special education eligibility determinations. Much of the research has focused on CBM in the area of reading. Relatively few studies have examined the area of CBM-Written Expression. A couple of studies indicated there are gender differences on CBM-Written Expression measures. This study sought to determine if gender differences exist at the elementary level and, if so, at what grade level such differences appear.

This study investigated the differences between boys and girls on three CBM-Written Expression production-dependent scores (i.e., Total Words Written, Words Spelled Correctly, and Correct Word Sequence) across first through fifth grade levels. Statistically significant differences were found beginning in the first grade. However, effect sizes suggest practical differences do not occur until the second or third grade. The results indicate that schools using CBM-Written Expression data should develop genderspecific norms.


Child Psychology | Curriculum and Instruction | Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Developmental Psychology | Educational Psychology | School Psychology