Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Charles Crume, William Kummer, Elmer Gray

Degree Program

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation and Sport

Degree Type

Master of Science


The problem statement for this study was: "Will there be a significant difference between the mean verbal format and mean visual format CEWAS scores of fifth and sixth grade students'"

There would seem a need for this study due to the increasing number of participants in outdoor recreational activities. This increase introduces many environmental concerns which must be addressed in order to maintain present conditions at wilderness areas.

Data related to wilderness anxiety among fifth and sixth grade male and female students attending McNeill Elementary School in Bowling Green, Kentucky, were collected analyzed for significant difference. Randomly selected pretest (verbal format) and posttest (visual format) groups completed the Crume/Ellis Wilderness Anxiety Scale, which measures wilderness anxiety in seven specific areas and total score. Each of the seven factor scores and the total scores were tested for pre- and posttest significant difference among males and again among females.

Analysis of data related to the verbal format CEWAS pretest for males and females indicated that there was a significant difference between mean male and mean female CEWAS pretest scores. In light of the above, it was determined that the study populations should be separated into samples of males and females for pre- and posttest analysis.

Male paired t test results indicated that total mean group score and two factor mean scores produced significant difference at .05 or greater. Five factor mean scores failed to produce significant difference. Female paired t test results indicated that total mean group score failed to produce a significant difference (.05 or greater). This was also the case with five of the factor scores. A significant difference (.05 or greater) was found on two factors: (a) Sudden Attack and (b) Inclement Weather, the same factors that produced significant differences among males.


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