Publication Date

Spring 2020

Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Reagan D. Brown (Director), Katrina A. Burch, and Elizabeth L. Shoenfelt

Degree Program

Department of Psychological Sciences

Degree Type

Master of Science


The objective of this study is to empirically test existing techniques to calculate the likely range of values for a Classical Test Theory true score given an observed score. The traditional method for forming these confidence intervals has used the standard error of measurement (SEM) as the basis for this confidence interval. An alternate equation, the standard error of estimate (SEE), has been recommended in place of the SEM for this purpose, yet it remains overlooked in the field of psychometrics. It is important that the correct equation be used in various applications in personnel psychology. Monte Carlo analyses were conducted to investigate the performance of the various methods for computing a confidence interval around an observed score. Results indicated that the SEE equation used with an observed score regressed to the mean most accurately and efficiently located an individual’s true score.


Human Resources Management | Industrial and Organizational Psychology | Statistical Methodology | Statistical Models | Statistical Theory