Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Thomas Gross, Sarah Bonis, Carl Myers

Degree Program

Department of Educational Administration, Leadership and Research

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


Alternatives to punitive punishment and discipline have gained popularity as research has supported the advances towards safer and more positive school communities. This includes multi-tiered service models, such as Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). Additionally, a restorative justice (RJ) approach can offer non-punitive, relationship-centered practices for avoiding and addressing harm, responding to violations of legal and human rights, and collaboratively solving problems. However, limited research has been conducted looking at the connection between RJ practices and frameworks such as PBIS, which are already implemented in a many schools. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to review the RJ literature for the current practices in schools and then examine how they align with the PBIS framework. Twenty-one peer-reviewed articles were reviewed. It was found that the RJ principles “Providing Accountability and Support”, “Making Things Right”, and “Viewing Conflict as a Learning Opportunity” were identified the most throughout the articles (range = 86% to 95%). Across all PBIS tiers, the RJ principles Providing Accountability and Support, Making Things Right, and Viewing Conflict as a Learning Opportunity were commonly used for tier 1 (range = 81% to 94%), tier 2 (range = 90% to 97%), and tier 3 (range = 90% to 90%). The results indicate existing alignment with restorative practices and PBIS but points to a need for further research. Further research should be aimed at determining an approach that guides the implementation of precise restorative practices alongside existing PBIS frameworks.


Education | Educational Psychology | Elementary Education | Psychology | School Psychology | Secondary Education | Social and Behavioral Sciences