Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Steven Ininger, Jenni Redifer, Pitt Derryberry

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


The increase of technology in educational classrooms has changed the way instruction is delivered and received, positively and negatively. When technology is used for off-task purposes, negative effects on student learning are well-documented. However, little research has been conducted on the effect of student off-task technology use on teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of off-task technology use during instruction on K-12 teachers, while including more modern devices. Two hundred sixty-two Kentucky K-12 teachers completed online surveys in which their perceptions of multitasking, views of the impact of off-task technology use on students, and on themselves were assessed. Results indicated that teachers believe offtask technology use hinders student learning and is an impediment to their teaching efforts. The results also showed that many teachers experienced negative emotional reactions as a result of viewing the off-task behavior. Teachers with lower beliefs in the ability to multitask viewed off-task technology use as more of a problem. Lastly, High School teachers report observing more off-task technology use than Middle School teachers, and Middle School teachers observe more than Elementary teachers. Discussion and implications are provided.


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Psychology | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences | Teacher Education and Professional Development