Publication Date


Degree Program

Educational Leadership

Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy


This exploratory study sought to investigate the relationships among comprehensive school reform, years of implementation, and student achievement in Kentucky's elementary schools. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) Does a difference exist in reading achievement scores of third grade students after one year, two years, three years, and continuation of America's Choice implementation when compared to scores prior to implementation? (2) Is there evidence that indicate the program is sustained after completion of the three years of implementation? and (3) Is there a trend in reading achievement scores of third grade students after a four-year period of America's Choice continuation? The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, mandates by the year 2014 all students must perform in the proficient range in all subject areas, as measured by Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Though Kentucky has worked meticulously to meet student needs through improved curriculum and educational standards, it is still not meeting the needs of all students. Kentucky's public schools, as a whole, did not meet AYP for the school year 2004. The Kentucky School Report Card (2004) indicates Kentucky was deficient in three of the 25 areas of AYP: African-American education, English language learners, and special needs instruction. Student achievement was assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS/5). The year prior to implementation scores for each of the nine schools provided a baseline for implementation year comparisons. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Results of this study were inconclusive. The statistical analyses performed on the schools in this study indicated gains in achievement for some America's Choice schools and declines in achievement by others. Research provided some insight into schools' considering this comprehensive reform model as a tool for improving student achievement.



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