J. Gary Knowles

Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

William Kummer, Charles Crume, Elmer Gray, Richard Wilson


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Original department Physical Education & Recreation

Degree Program

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation and Sport

Degree Type

Master of Science


This study was conducted in an endeavor to highlight the relevance of the outdoor education method for Seventh-day Adventist Christian educational programs. The purpose of the study was to formulate a philosophy of outdoor education as it relates to the mission of Seventh-day Adventist Christian education. In order to formulate the statement of philosophy, an extensive review of literature was made (including both secular and Seventh-day Adventist sources). As a basis for the review, the concepts of outdoor education as determined by Lewis (1975) were used. The philosophy of Seventh day Adventist Christian education was related to statements on outdoor education by secular outdoor educators. Fifty-six concept statements were derived from the literature survey. Ex. means of a survey instruments a jury (consisting of twelve Seventh-day Adventist educational administrators, outdoor educators and teachers) evaluated each outdoor education concept statement, relating it to the acknowledge Seventh day Adventist philosophy of education. A 100% return of the survey instrument was obtained. Using a rating scale the jury determined the significance of each concept statement for Seventh-day Adventist Christian education. As a result, a concluding statement of outdoor education was formulated This final statement was submitted to the educational directors of both the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists (world headquarters) for their consideration. Other outcomes of the study included: an annotated bibliography for Seventh-day Adventist outdoor educators and specific recommendations for the implementation of outdoor education in the Seventh-day Adventist Christian education setting.


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