Publication Date

Spring 2021

Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Carl Myers (Director), Dr. Sarah Ochs, and Savannah Harley, Psy.S

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


Previous research has shown that there are gender differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement (WE CBM) with female students scoring higher than male students (Fearrington et al., 2014; Jewell & Malecki, 2005; McMaster et al, 2017; Scheiber et al., 2015). However, research looking at a different transcription mode (i.e., typed) in WE CBM is a new area of development (Mercer et al., 2019). Differences in gender with typed writing has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine if gender differences exist in typed, as well as handwritten WE CBM probes. The participants from this study were obtained from a larger data set from an ongoing study examining growth in WE CBM over time. There were approximately 400 fourth and fifth grade students who completed handwritten and typed responses to WE CBM probes. The results showed that the female students had statistically significantly higher scores than male students on both handwritten and typed responses. The finding of gender differences in typed WE CBM has important implications for both CBM practices and writing research.


Educational Psychology | Elementary Education | School Psychology