It is widely assumed that the “born again” and “born of water and spirit” sayings in the Gospel of John, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Hippolytus, the Pseudo-Clementines, and the Apostolic Constitutions derive independently via oral tradition. This article demonstrates that the patristic sayings are based on the written Gospel of John.
Arts and Humanities | Biblical Studies | Religion
Barker, James W., "Written Gospel or Oral Tradition? (John 3:3, 5)" (2015). Faculty/Staff Personal Papers. Paper 245.